Health effects of tobacco at the global, regional, and national levelsWebmaster TRC
He H, Pan Z, Wu J, et al. Health effects of tobacco at the global, regional, and national levels: results from the 2019 Global Burden of Disease study. Nicotine & Tobacco Research. 20 December 2021.
Tobacco was responsible for 8.71 million deaths and 229.77 million disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) globally in 2019. The age-standardized rates (ASRs) of all tobacco-related deaths and DALYs declined from 1990 to 2019, to 108.55 deaths per 100,000 population and 2791.04 DALYs per 100,000 population in 2019. During any year the ASRs of all tobacco-related deaths and DALYs were higher in males than in females. The ASRs of all tobacco-related deaths and DALYs were highest in countries with a low-middle sociodemographic index (SDI) and lowest in high-SDI countries in 2019. Cardiovascular disease, neoplasms, and chronic respiratory diseases were the three leading causes of tobacco-related mortality.