Research utiltzation

From 2015-2018, TRC has emphasized and focused on seven major research questions in tobacco control.  After careful scrutiny, TRC has found these areas with missing knowledge that really need exploration in more detail for tobacco control.  These areas are described by category below:

  1. Prevent new initial smokers with emphasis on restricting access to tobacco by adolescents
  2. Reduction of the number of regular smokers living upcountry, especially Roll-Your-Own smokers (RYO smokers)
  3. Protection of the health of non-smokers by reducing second-hand smoke and third-hand smoke at work, home and in public places
  4. Extend access to quit smoking opportunities
  5. Reform legislation on tobacco control and enhance law enforcement
  6. Using tax measures and licensure, and suppression of illicit tobacco
  7. Evaluate effectiveness of tobacco control measures

TRC has announced these research areas in order to give direction to research conducted each year from 2015 – 2018.  TRC has announced research areas in more detail as described below:

The 1st Research area:Prevent new initial smokers with emphasis on restricting access to tobacco by adolescents

  • Tobacco control in adolescent groups in educational places
    • Evaluate practices according to the law for selling tobacco products in areas around educational places by comparing tobacco buying behavior among pupils, students, and people.
  • Study factors to persuade school executives to focus on practices according to the smoke – free school ideal.
  • Evaluate results and follow up pre- and post-tests of smokers – free school projects.
  • Study processes of reaching circles of adolescents living in cities and upcountry who have the highest levels of smoking.
  • Tobacco control and surveillance of the tobacco industry
    • Monitoring / evaluation of law enforcement and various tobacco control measures on tobacco products other than regular cigarettes, tobacco sale / marketing communication (such as online), and study tobacco use in adolescents and women which are resulting in changes in tobacco consumption patterns of products such as Baraku, which is changed to “cloud stone”.
  • Evaluation of the enforcement by the Ministry of Commerce on Baraku, Electronic Barakul and Electric cigarette.
  • Communication for smoking behavior change
    • How does social network influence non – smoking attitude and behavior, concern about the facts of cigarette dangers by adolescents, or roles in encouraging quitting smoking?
  • How communication strategies and effective information can prevent adolescents from becoming initial smokers and inform society to be concerned about tobacco industry tactics.
  • How to reduce the new and novel advertisement of tobacco products in Thailand.
  • How to protect children living in families with a high risk of smoking (such as in broken families, disadvantaged street children and homeless children) to prevent or reduce initiation of smoking.
  • Establish smoking behavior change in adolescents studying in vocational schools with the purpose of creating non – smoking norms and helping these students quit smoking.
  • Effectiveness of national campaigns in preventing adolescent from smoking in Thailand.

The 2nd Research area:Reduction of the number of regular smokers living upcountry, especially Roll-Your-Own smokers (RYO smokers)

  • Develop and strengthen community networks
    • Study skills necessary for being community leaders to prevent new initial smokers in communities and to convince smokers to quit smoking, including shredded tobacco.
  • Study methods and models to build leaders for social networks in order to provide surveillance for society and to prevent new initial smokers.
  • Study integrating social model measures to control cigarette sales to children younger than 20 at the community level and to control illicit cigarette trade.
  • Research reflecting actual situations in real life and relationship structures of individuals associated with shredded tobacco in order to raise awareness and to lead to problem solving together in communities.
  • Control tobacco consumption by systemic problem solving
    • How do provincial offices play roles in tobacco consumption control and tobacco distribution?
  • Analyze components of various roll – your –own cigarettes to measure carcinogens according to the international standard.
  • Analyze toxins in factory cigarettes and roll – your –own cigarettes and their effects on the health of smokers.
  • Study effects on health and the economy of Thailand caused by smoking roll – your –own cigarettes
  • Evaluate the effectiveness of tobacco control measures at the community level.
  • Reduce impacts to the health of tobacco farmers
    • Compare economic variables including cost, income, chemical levels in the blood, and illness of tobacco farmers as compared to those who grow other plants.
  • Examine the financial risks of tobacco farmers in growing other crops which tobacco farmers might grow when quotas for tobacco growing are reduced.
  • Reduce roll – your –own cigarette consumption (in the North and the Northeast)
    • How does behavior change in customers of the Bank of Agriculture and Agricultural Co – Operatives after participating in smoking cessation counseling?
  • How much does it cost for Roll – Your – Own cigarettes in families living in the North and the Northeast?
  • How affordable are Roll – Your – Own cigarettes for rural residents?
  • How do prices affect the reduction of smoking Roll – Your – Own cigarettes and factory cigarettes?
  • Issues of the Thai Tobacco Product Control Act
    • How does the Tobacco Product Control Act effect tobacco growing?
  • How effective is it in reducing tobacco growing areas?
  • What types of crops are capable of replacing tobacco growing?
  • How is the labor structure of tobacco farms? How many children labor in tobacco farms? How does tobacco production affect the smoking behavior of children?
  • How do the health conditions of tobacco farmers compare with those growing other crops?

The 3rd Research area:Protection of the health of non-smokers by reducing second-hand smoke and third-hand smoke at work, home and in public places

  • How to enhance or increase effective public relations for smoke – free work places
  • Situation of social measures to control cigarette smoking in condominiums, apartments, work places, and other smoke – free places
  • Situation of exposure to second – hand smoke and third – hand smoke by children in the home
  • Study or various marketing management in order to encourage tobacco control
  • How to build understanding of business owners in order to build awareness of smoke – free laws
  • Reform of legislation and law enforcement to produce smoke - free environments
  • Protection of the health of non – smokers through smoke – free workplaces
  • Monitoring & evaluation of research information aiming to increase the effectiveness of national measures on smoke – free environments

The 4th Research area:Extend access to quit smoking opportunities

  • How religious processes can help people quit smoking
    • What are influential factors helping people to sustain smoking cessation?
  • How to help smokers make decision to participate in smoking cessation? (Deep study of cases where smokers are able to quit smoking)
  • Service system
    • Processes for quitting smoking starting from communities, community hospitals, and larger hospitals including processes of screening, diagnosis and treatment.
    • How can a proactive service be effective? (along with the Quit line and monitoring at the primary level)
    • Patient screening patterns
    • Trial methods for screening smokers who want to quit smoking with high cost effectiveness
      • Conduct research on performance in terms of recording smoking history, warning patients to quit smoking, and also recording diagnosis in order to have basic treatment. 
  • Conduct research on performance to build motivation in smokers to quit smoking in the screening process of smokers
  • Brief advice
    • Interface brief advice service information at sub-district health promoting hospitals with hospital medical records.
  • Expand consulting for quitting smoking with communication technology to reach the entire population through utilizing mobile technology with both text messages and applications.
  • How many smokers have access to quit smoking services and the targets of quit smoking services in Thailand? And where? (According to UN goals).
  • How to invite smokers to participate in smoking cessation services as much as possible
  • How should the care continuity service system work for patients having smoking problems? (for those people who use services in hospitals).
  • How should smoking cessation services in Thailand be organized?
  • How the integrating advice for quitting smoking in chronic care patients should be?
  • How should processes respond to the needs of product development for smoking cessation (such as variation of NRT products or drugs helping people quit smoking) and respond to the need for effective smoking cessation services? (How to bring a change of view in the interaction of both the public and private sectors).
  • Manpower system
    • How does the family doctor team assist smokers to quit smoking?
    • How does one make doctors more interested and involved in advising patients to quit smoking
    • How do doctors take part in smoking cessation services?
    • How do smokers who do not use hospital services access quit smoking services?
  • Feedback system: Conduct research on the role of adjustments by the Thailand Regional and General Hospital Society (T.H.S) in receiving and transferring smoking patients and feedback of services in the Thailand Regional and General Hospital Society (T.H.S)
  • Information System for evaluation
    • How to interface and process services from multiple providers and multiple systems
    • The cost - effectiveness of smoking cessation at district health promotion hospitals
    • Cost - effectiveness of smoking cessation at smoking cessation clinics

The 5th Research area:Reform legislation on tobacco control and enhance law enforcement

  • How to improve the effectiveness of both the Tobacco Product Control Act B.E. 2535 (1992) and Non-Smokers' Health Protection Act B.E. 2535 (1992)?  Are there any legal gaps? What content can be added to this existing legislation?
  • How to increase effectiveness of law enforcement for non – smokers’ health protection and measures for better law enforcement for Tobacco Control
  • On compliance with the obligations under the WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC), in which areas has Thailand not complied, and what should be the first priority.
  • The possibility of future legislation banning newborns from smoking in their lifetime, and which legislation should support this non-smoking generation.
  • Problems and barriers in proposing the draft Tobacco Products Control Act to the Cabinet and the National Assembly.
  • Conduct research to determine alternatives to reform the tobacco industry: issues such as good governance and banning Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR).
  • The effectiveness of expanding to 85% pictorial pack warnings in reducing and quitting smoking.
  • Study chemicals in cigarettes in order to effectively support the Tobacco Product Control Act B.E. 2535 (1992)  

The 6th Research area:Using tax measures and licensure, and suppression of illicit tobacco

  • What tax should be collected on shredder tobacco in order to reduce tobacco use?
    • Tax structure and tax collection management in other countries
    • Elasticity of tobacco use demand versus tobacco prices of all tobacco products (not only cigarettes) such as the elasticities for 3 different priced cigarettes (premium priced, medium priced, and cheap priced) if smokers should switch to smoke shredded tobacco in case cigarette prices should increase.
  • Analyze tobacco consumption problems due to participation in the SEA Free Trade Area (AFTA) in 2015, and directions to counter this problem.
    • How might changing technology costs, production factors, and tobacco tax increases affect price, profit, and tobacco market structure?
    • What is the possibility of reducing tax benefits from tobacco products in Thailand?  What is the excise tax exemption for cigarettes across the border?
    • The incidence of problems and solutions of illicit cigarette smuggling on the border with Thailand (The Eastern Region).
    • Marketing strategies of tobacco companies in investing in the free-trade market.
  • Are there other ways to limit licensees at cigarette retail shops that supports the Thai context?

The 7th Research area:Evaluate effectiveness of tobacco control measures

  • Information about indicators to evaluate success in tobacco control that has not yet been provided.
    • The level of absence or sick leave.
  • The evaluation of the effectiveness of existing tobacco control measures and suggestions to increase effectiveness such as:
    • How to expand open market areas to be effective non – smoking areas at the provincial level.
    • Methodologies to evaluate the effectiveness of media campaigns and case studies.
    • How to measure performance and results of smoke – free school projects? A case study of methodologies used in evaluation that is similar to innovative evaluation in areas that use self-assessment of people working in various fields.
    • Results of using law enforcement on tobacco advertisement.
  • Return On Investment (ROI) of non - smoking prevention measures, quitting smoking measures or measures preventing initial smoking that have been previously used (in terms of social views which are often divided into government costs or social costs) such as:
    • Cost-saving of implementing MPOWER schemes in Thailand
    • Health &economic impact due to secondhand & third-hand smoke in Thailand
    • Health &economic impact due to hand-rolled cigarette smoking in Thailand
  • The expected results of pilot projects or new projects / measures in each tobacco control policy area and the feasibility study of valued measures that will occur in the future to ensure a proper investment in policy alternatives (prospective study).
  • The evaluation of tobacco control according to each section in the WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC), and suggestions for success through strategic goals of tobacco control (evaluated following the benchmarks of the FCTC)
  • Inequalities in smoking in ASEAN countries at both the individual (intra-country) and collective (inter-country) levels
  • Estimation of impact on medical costs for treatment of patients who smoke compared to non-smokers.
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